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The architecture of mansions was an integral part of popularisation of modern trends in the interwar period in Latvia.
One of the greatest masters in this area was a building engineer Teodors Hermanovskis. Ogre a provincial small town near Riga had become popular among the Riga intelligentsia as a recreation place and a summer residence site.
It offered a new environment, a challenge for architects to implement modern ideas in mansion and summer cottage projects over a relatively short period of time. It was a time when the functionalism that was topical in Europe also allowed the presence of Art Deco in projects, which was organically logical. Ultimate fat loss system cherry hill mansions designed by Teodors Hermanovskis in Ogre are indicative of an architect who fulfils modern and daring ideas in interwar Latvia, as the one whose projects can be classified as belonging to Art Deco style.
Keywords: architectural history, Art Deco mansion, Functionalist mansion, the s and s.
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In the s and s, architecture in the new state of Latvia saw certain activities that were generally characteristic of that time period in Europe. Contrary to the pronouncements of some opponents in press, the ideas of Modern Movement or Functionalism, which found their beginning in Deutsche Werkbund and Bauhaus, were playing an important role, thus proposing a completely new way of architectural thinking for Europe moving to architecture of simple geometric forms.
Not only large cities of Latvia were open for the modern tendencies; also provincial towns and the numerous emerging cultural centres were drawn into the political and economic change.
Ogre, although it had but recently obtained town status inwas actively developing as a place of culture and recreation near Riga. Regular train traffic was an important factor in ensuring a close link with the capital. Many representatives of Fig. Mansion at Kalna prospekts 3, Ogre Teodors Riga intelligentsia chose the small and quiet town on the River Ogre as their seasonal dwelling place.
The town offered a new environment, a challenge for architects to implement modern ideas in projects of private houses and summer cottages within a relatively short period of time, sometimes also with the limited choice of materials and modest financial possibilities. It was a time when Functionalism that was topical in Europe also allowed the kazas piena jogurts svara zudums of Art Deco in projects, which was organic and logical.
An important role in the development of Latvian architecture in the interwar period was ultimate fat loss system cherry hill by Teodors Hermanovskis, a building engineer by education. Being a great master of applying the Modern Movement or Modern Functionalism in the architecture of Riga apartment houses and public buildings, he also produced many mansions, which are still in place not only in the provincial Riga left-bank area Pārdaugava and other residential districts of Riga characterised by low-rise buildings and abundant greenery, but also the small town of Ogre.
In Ogre, which was then a suburban resort near Riga, Hermanovskis built a number of villas, the designs of which not only kept pace with the dynamic compositions of construction shapes found in the capital but sometimes even surpassed them. Surrounded by pine trees on the outskirts of the town, a picturesque hill mansion was built for the family of Anna Ozoliņa and the Riga bank manager Pauls Ozoliņš. The house is attractive thanks to its dynamic façade developed in contrasting colours.
Triangularshaped structures as a decorative element characteristic of the Art Deco era can be found throughout Europe, in more or less outspoken form. For example, the extensive overview of recent British architecture in the Architectural Review of included photos and plans of typical homes of that time, ultimate fat loss system cherry hill them terrace houses in the Silver End Garden Village Essex designed by the architect Thomas S.
Houses of Tait s design traditionally had flat roofs, which in the Essex village were painted emerald green, also using this colour for some of the façade details, thus receiving rather negative reactions from the contemporary English society. These buildings, which were typically simple and were, to some extent, regarded as dull, were brightened up only by a few details Art Deco details geometrical motifs 6 2 Fig.
Façade fragment. Mansion at Kalna prospekts 3, Ogre Teodors Fig. Design of façade.
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Mansion at Kalna prospekts 3, Ogre Teodors Hermanovskis. The essence of Hermanovskis creative temperament is best demonstrated by the design of the building at Kalna Prospekts Avenue ultimate fat loss system cherry hill Ogre. The plans of building façades show that Art Deco style is manifested in particularly exaggerated decorativeness: the main façade graphically vibrates with four different configurations of windows, with changing window setup from 6 to 12 panes and shape, from rectangular to trapezoidal Figure 3.
Unfortunately, the design was not implemented in full; subsequent reconstructions resulted in some of the architect s Fig. Mansion at Kalna prospekts 3, Ogre Teodors ideas being lost, including the trapezoidal window in the garden façade, whereas the porch with the terrace was transformed into a two-storey extension.
Most of these monuments, which are viewed as symbols of oppression by Latvians, have been removed. A red granite monument, once dedicated to the Latvian riflemen who protected Lenin after the Revolution ofstill exists on Strlnieku laukums, but now honours all of the riflemen - Whites and Reds. Another monument, dedicated to the Soviet liberation of Riga, is located on the other side of the Daugava. Take a number and have a seat.
As a testimony to the architect s attitude towards windows as an essential component of a building, we see the window frames of the antechamber with the original zigzag strutting Figure 4. Yet, the building reveals masterful composition of construction shapes and alignment of decorative components the façades are enriched with multiplicative composition of planes, creating expressive effects of light and shadow play.
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They magnificently adorn dynamic plane breakdown of the main façade and the numerous individual components: the ziggurat-shaped gable outline and the composition of its planes, dominating over the relatively flat roof, the profiling of the pilasters surrounding the entrance, the bay and the dynamics of its planes.
At Kalna Prospekts 3, Hermanovskis created one of the most magnificent samples of mansions in Latvia, where the aesthetics of Art Deco in the s Style is fully reflected.
Hermanovskis also incorporates the decorative motifs of the s into Art Deco aesthetics in the shapewise fairly traditional two-storey plastered wooden summer cottage at Kalna Prospekts 8 : a zigzag motif in the balcony railing and an outspokenly Cubist step-shaped capital for the supports Figure 5. Buildings displaying typical functionalism, or Modern Movement, which, due to the plastic construction shapes and 7 3 Fig.
Mansion at Kalna prospekts 8, Ogre Teodors Fig. Polygonal balcony, apartment and business house, Marijas iela street 8, Riga Teodors Fig. It is not surprising that in the late s and during the s in Europe Art Deco architecture, gradually accustoming the audience, increasingly begins to use the experiences of functionalism .
The five-storey house is attractive thanks to its laconic façade solution, where the emphasis is placed on the ground floor and the first floor with a polygonal balcony. The edges of the balcony, maintaining the rhythm proportions of the façade composition, are implemented in cubic shapes, which unwittingly recalls the Czech cubist method of breaking classic shapes, yet without the angular accent that is characteristic of Czech Cubism Figure 6 and 7.
Further impressive elements of the façade are niches and cornices, and a dynamic triangular bay structure, harmoniously breaking the plane of the façade. Three years later, Hermanovskis used similar shapes in the rental house at Bruņinieku iela 45where the composition was similar: 11a triangular bay structure and a polygonal balcony dominated in the centre, combining in the façade the aesthetics of Functionalism, Zig-Zag Moderne, the ziggurat theme in the building pediment and classical aesthetics.
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Discussions on how to view individual cases of rather rational architecture in the s and s allowed the architectural historian Rosemarie Haag Bletter to point out in the s that, due to insufficient studies of Art Deco, it was not clear how the creative work of Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe could be associated with Art Deco, and to criticize the tendency to associate all interwar architecture with the Art Deco style .
It is believed that the modern composition of construction shapes first appeared in the Tomorrow s House by the U. Terraces, ramps and streamlines, as well as provocative geometric curves all demonstrate how much American Deco owed to the avant-garde architecture of Russian Constructivists such as Iakov Chernikov and Konstantin Melnikov, [1, 20] although these features appeared in Europe already in the villa of the fashion designer Paul Poiret by Robert Mallet-StevensMézy-sur-Seine, France.
Teodors Hermanovskis implemented a number of dynamic from the point of view of Art Moderne compositions of cubic shapes in his works, juxtaposing horizontal and vertical shapes.
He arranged construction shapes dexterously, enriching them with terraces, balconies, porthole-type windows and streamline, departing from symmetry and conventional solutions. Examples that are more known in architectural history are the houses in the quiet areas of Riga, such as the smart semi-detached house at Ojāra Vācieša iela 13the mansions at Ojāra Vācieša iela 33Mazā Nometņu iela 6Bergenas iela 8all built by Hermanovskis design. There, Functionalism lost its balanced peace and obtained a strong form and plastics of façades, demonstrating the principles of Art Moderne.
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Hermanovskis talent to display world-class architectural mastery even in small projects is demonstrated by the building in Riga at Ojāra Vācieša iela 33 8 4 Fig. Another splendid example can be found in Ogre: the house designed at Brīvības iela 48 for the pharmacist Ieva Ķere, the daughter of apothecary Pēteris Šīrons.
The changes of the postwar years have not altered the main idea, namely, the presence of Art Deco aesthetics in Art Nouveau interpretation: a dynamic composition of cubical volumes, several terraces, supplemented by streamline attributes characteristic of the thirties the streamline motif in the terrace and the porthole-type windows Figure Here, the expression principle ultimate fat loss system cherry hill the shapes is practically the same as in the building atbrīvības iela 48 ; however, the verticality of shape is more pronounced, especially in the view from the street Figure Design of garden façade.
Mansion at Brīvības iela 48, Ogre Teodors Hermanovskis. The building at Strēlnieku iela 9 5 Fig. Mansion at Strēlnieku iela 2, Ogre. Teodors Fig. Teodors Hermanovskis.
- Teodors Hermanovskis, Art Deco and a Provincial Town Ogre - PDF Free Download
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Even after seventy-five years, the intensity of the tone has not faded. Post-war reconstructions resulted in the loss of the original sun-lounge with exit to the garden, which was separated from the living-room by a glass wall with built-in glass shelves with chromium-plated edging Figure The use of chromiumplated metals, which were fashionable in Europe at that time, was also approved by reviewers in Latvia. Already inthe art historian Visvaldis Peņgerots wrote about the progressive evolution of constructivist building and design, or the development of the interior decorator, as manifested, for example, in the use of metals, which revolutionizes the statics of furniture, establishes new rhythms, where the world outlook of the 20 th century is fully reflected.
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Round brass door handle, living-room. Teodors 10 6 Fig. Original colour scheme of living-room doors. Apartment houses door and Round brass door handle at ulica Krovoderska 65a, Kraków Arch.
Hermanovskis creations were strongly formed by the rational element, prevailing over the decorative tendency, which was implemented in harmony with architectural volume. His ability to expressively arrange basic geometrical shapes, preserving balance and not giving up dynamics and expression, matches the world s best achievements. At the same time, his works do not succumb entirely to the principles tauku zudums 360 the Modern Movement.
Following principles of Bauhaus, which were the symbol of radical innovations of the 20 th century, Hermanovskis promoted implementation of the modern building type in Latvian architecture, the followers of which were also after the World War II.
Teodors Hermanovskis can be considered a master of mansions, an implementer of innovate and daring ideas in interwar Latvia, where his projects have had an important role in the sphere of research dedicated to national Art Deco style and aesthetics. Staircase, mansion at Strēlnieku iela 2, Ogre. Tinniswood, A. The Art Deco House. Avant-Garde Houses of the s and s. London: Mitchell Beazley, p Tołłoczko, Z. W kręgu architektury Art Déco.
Architectural Details. London: Greenwich Editions, p Peņģerots, V. Dažas domas par konstruktīvismu. Daugava,Nr. Weber, E. American Art Deco. Rīgas arhitektūra Photographs by I. Rīga: Avots, lpp.
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Ogre Museum of History and Arts. Fragment of staircase wall. Renāte Čaupale Riga,Dr. Fragment of interior with a glass wall and chromium-plated shelves. Teodors Hermanovskis, Art Deco un mazpilsēta Ogre Starpkaru laika Latvijā savrupmāju arhitektūra ieņēma nozīmīgu vietu modernu tendenču popularizēšanā.
The architecture of mansions was an integral part of popularisation of modern trends in the interwar period in Latvia. One of the greatest masters in this area was a building engineer Teodors Hermanovskis. Ogre a provincial small town near Riga had become popular among the Riga intelligentsia as a recreation place and a summer residence site.
Viens no izcilākajiem meistariem šajā jomā bija būvinženieris Teodors Hermanovskis. Šai laikā Pierīgas mazpilsēta Ogre bija ieguvusi popularitāti Rīgas inteliģences vidū kā atpūtas un vasarnīcu vieta.
Te arhitektiem bija jauna vide izaicinājumam samērā īsā laikā savrupmāju un vasarnīcu projektos realizēt modernas idejas.